1From Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, 2set apart for the service of the gospel that God promised long ago through his prophets in the holyscriptures. 3This is the gospel concerning his Son who, in terms of human nature 4was born a descendant of David and who, in terms of the Spirit and of holiness, was designated Son ofGod in power by resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ, our Lord, 5through whom we have received grace and our apostolic mission of winning the obedience of faithamong all the nations for the honour of his name. 6You are among these, and by his cal you belong to Jesus Christ. 7To you al , God's beloved in Rome, cal ed to be his holy people. Grace and peace from God our Fatherand the Lord Jesus Christ. 8First I give thanks to my God through Jesus Christ for al of you because your faith is talked of al overthe world. 9God, whom I serve with my spirit in preaching the gospel of his Son, is my witness that I continuallymention you in my prayers, 10asking always that by some means I may at long last be enabled to visit you, if it is God's will. 11For I am longing to see you so that I can convey to you some spiritual gift that will be a lastingstrength, 12or rather that we may be strengthened together through our mutual faith, yours and mine. 13I want you to be quite certain too, brothers, that I have often planned to visit you -- though up to thepresent I have always been prevented -- in the hope that I might work as fruitfully among you as I have amongthe gentiles elsewhere. 14I have an obligation to Greeks as wel as barbarians, to the educated as wel as the ignorant, 15and hence the eagerness on my part to preach the gospel to you in Rome too. 16For I see no reason to be ashamed of the gospel; it is God's power for the salvation of everyone whohas faith -- Jews first, but Greeks as well- 17for in it is revealed the saving justice of God: a justice based on faith and addressed to faith. As itsays in scripture: Anyone who is upright through faith will live. 18The retribution of God from heaven is being revealed against the ungodliness and injustice of humanbeings who in their injustice hold back the truth. 19For what can be known about God is perfectly plain to them, since God has made it plain to them: 20ever since the creation of the world, the invisible existence of God and his everlasting power havebeen clearly seen by the mind's understanding of created things. And so these people have no excuse: 21they knew God and yet they did not honour him as God or give thanks to him, but their argumentsbecame futile and their uncomprehending minds were darkened. 22While they claimed to be wise, in fact they were growing so stupid 23that they exchanged the glory of the immortal God for an imitation, for the image of a mortal humanbeing, or of birds, or animals, or crawling things. 24That is why God abandoned them in their inmost cravings to filthy practices of dishonouring their ownbodies- 25because they exchanged God's truth for a lie and have worshipped and served the creature insteadof the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen. 26That is why God abandoned them to degrading passions: 27why their women have exchanged natural intercourse for unnatural practices; and the men, in asimilar fashion, too, giving up normal relations with women, are consumed with passion for each other, mendoing shameful things with men and receiving in themselves due reward for their perversion. 28In other words, since they would not consent to acknowledge God, God abandoned them to theirunacceptable thoughts and indecent behaviour. 29And so now they are steeped in al sorts of injustice, rottenness, greed and malice; full of envy,murder, wrangling, treachery and spite, 30libel ers, slanderers, enemies of God, rude, arrogant and boastful, enterprising in evil, rebellious toparents, 31without brains, honour, love or pity. 32They are well aware of God's ordinance: that those who behave like this deserve to die -- yet they notonly do it, but even applaud others who do the same.